ABSTRACT. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of pharmacologically important Adhatoda vasica plant extracts. Plant Adhatoda vasica L. Nees (Acanthaceae) commonly known as Malabar nut is an evergreen two – three m tall shrub, sometime used as. Adhatoda vasica (L.) (Acanthaceae) is used in the indigenous system of medicine in India. The alkaloid Vasicine was isolated from ethanolic extract of the .
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BoxRiyadhSaudi Activitu. Acanthaceae is used in the indigenous system of medicine in India. The alkaloid Vasicine was isolated from ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. Vasicine acetate was obtained by acetylation of Vasicine. Vasicine acetate exhibited good zone of inhibition against bacteria: Vasicine acetate showed minimum inhibitory concentration values against bacteria: The compound showed prominent cytotoxic activity in vitro against A lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell line.
Vasicine acetate could be probed further in drug discovery programme. Natural products still remain the most important source for discovery of new and potential drug molecules. Medicinal plants are important sources of practical drugs cativity people throughout the year.
Nature acts as a prominent reservoir for new xntimicrobial novel therapeutics. The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens and the increase in diseases affecting the immune system have greatly intensified the need to investigate new bioactive metabolites for potential activigy and industrial applications [ 12 ]. Every year, at leastpeople die worldwide from cancer related to their workplace [ 3 ].
Nees Acanthaceaeknown commonly as Malabar nut tree, is a shrub xctivity throughout the Indian peninsula. The plant is used in the indigenous system of medicine in India and is a well-known expectorant in both Ayurvedic and Unani Systems of Medicine [ 45 ]. The leaves are used to treat malarial fever, chronic fever, intrinsic hemorrhage, cough, asthma, leprosy, skin diseases, and piles [ 6 ].
Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences Paper
The plant is reported to show abortifacient [ 7 ], antimicrobial [ 89 ], and antitussive activities [ 10 ]. The crude extract of A. The plant contains alkaloids such as Vasicine, vasicinone, deoxyvasicine, vasicol, adhatodinine, and vasicinol [ 12 ]. Other constituents include vitamin C, saponins, flavonoids as well as steroids, and fatty acids [ 13 ]. Vasicine is xdhatoda to have bronchodilatory, respiratory stimulant, and uterine stimulant effects [ 14 ]. Vasicine acetate showed antimycobacterial activity [ 15 ].
Antibacterial activity of adhatoda vasica leaf extract
Essential oils of the leaves of A. In the present communication we report the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer effects of Vasicine acetate acetylated from Vasicine obtained from A. The plant was identified by Dr. A voucher specimen No. Shade dried and coarsely powdered leaves of A.
The extract was filtered through Whatman No. The column was eluted with chloroform and chloroform: Further elution of the column with chloroform: The spot turned orange red on spraying with Dragendorff’s reagent.
The combined chloroform extract was washed with water, dipped, and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate. It was then distilled on a water bath and the residue was washed with little n-hexane. Then the residue was crystallised from chloroform to get Vasicine acetate as colorless crystals m.
Sample ethanol extract The solutions were filtered through a membrane filter pore size 0. HPLC analysis was carried out on a Waters Alliance separations module with photodiode array detector Waters, Two mobile phases A and B were used at flow rate of 1.
The mobile phase was filtered through a 0. Mobile phase A consisted of water with 0. Separation was carried out at room temperature. The estimation of Vasicine acetate content in the extract was performed using linear regression analysis. All melting point values are uncorrected and taken by open capillary method on a heating block Instrument.
UV-Visible spectra were taken in methanol on Thermo Fisher instrument. The chemicals are given in delta scale with TMS as an internal standard. The following Gram negative, Gram positive bacteria, clinical isolates, and fungi were used for the experiment: Antibacterial and antifungal antlmicrobial were carried out using disc diffusion method [ 16 ].
Negative control was prepared using respective solvents. Streptomycin was used as positive control for bacteria and Ketoconazole as positive control for fungi. Zones of inhibition were recorded in millimetres and the experiment was repeated twice. Minimum inhibitory concentration studies of the compounds were performed according to the standard reference methods for bacteria [ 17 ] and filamentous fungi avtivity 18 ].
The required concentrations, The antifungal agent Ketoconazole for fungi and antibacterial agent Streptomycin for bacteria were included in the assays as positive controls. The MIC for fungi og defined as the lowest extract concentration, showing no visible fungal growth after incubation time. The MIC for bacteria was determined as the anrimicrobial concentration of the compound inhibiting the visual growth of the test cultures on the agar plate.
DPPH 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of Vasicine acetate was determined based on the method of Wang et al. The free radical scavenging activity was calculated as follows:. A human adenocarcinoma cancer cell line was obtained from National Institute of Cell Sciences, Pune. The cytotoxicity was determined according to the method of Balachandran et al. After various durations of cultivation, the solution in the medium was antimicrohial.
Cytotoxicity of each sample was expressed as IC 50 value. The ethanol extract of A. The fraction was further purified and the compound Vasicine was isolated. The structure was elucidated using spectroscopic methods: The physical and spectroscopic actovity were compared with those reported in the literature [ 2122 ].
The physical and spectroscopic data were compared with those reported in the literature [ 15 ]. The structure of the antlmicrobial compound Vasicine and Vasicine acetate Figure 1.
It was studied for antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Vasicine showed antimicrobial activity against S. Vasicine acetate showed adahtoda inhibitory concentration values against bacteria; they were M. Ignacimuthu and Shanmugam [ 15 ] have reported the antitubercular activity of Vasicine acetate isolated from A. BHT is used as standard of antioxidant.
The radical scavenging activity of Vasicine acetate at different concentrations is shown in Table 3. Cytotoxic studies against A lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell line showed Vasicine acetate to be the most potent compound Table 4. Kulkarni [ 24 ] reported that A. Minimum inhibitory concentration of Vasicine acetate against tested bacteria and fungi.
Cytotoxic effect of Vasicine acetate against A lung adenocarcinoma adhatora cell line. Arhatoda acetate was obtained by acetylation of Vasicine recovered from A.
Vasicine acetate showed moderate antibacterial activity compared to Vasicine. Vasicine acetate could be checked further in drug vazica programme. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Biomed Res Int v. Published online Jan Al-Dhabi1 C. Balachandran2 S.
Sankar2 and K. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract Adhatoda vasica L. Introduction Natural products still remain the most important source for discovery of new and potential drug molecules. Materials and Methods 2.
Extraction Shade dried and coarsely powdered leaves of A. Instruments All melting point values are uncorrected and taken by open capillary method on a heating block Instrument. Microbial Organisms The following Gram negative, Gram positive bacteria, clinical isolates, and fungi were used for the experiment: Antimicrobial Activity Antibacterial and antifungal activities were carried out using disc diffusion method [ 16 ]. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration MIC Minimum inhibitory concentration studies of the compounds were performed according to the standard reference methods for bacteria [ 17 ] and filamentous fungi [ 18 ].
The free radical scavenging activity was calculated as follows: